The Ethnic and Historical origins of FYROM Part IV

Foreign evaluation continued..

A later Encycolpedia Brittanica edition from 1911 on Macedonia refers to the diverse ethnic make-up of Macedonia, and does not mention any Macedonian ethnicity, only Macedonian Greeks, Macedonian Bulgarians, Vlachs, Turks, Albanians, Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, Armenian minority and so on:

http://36.1911encyclopedia.org/M/MA/MACEDONIA.htm

Some Excerpts:

Quote:

“With the exception of the southern and western districts already specified, the principal towns, and certain isolated tracts, the whole of Macedonia is inhabited by a race or The races speaking a Slavonic dialect. If language is Slavonic adopted as a test, the great bulk of the rural population must be described as Slavonic. The Slavs first crossed the Danube at the beginning of the 3rd century, but their great immigration took place in the 6th and 7th centuries. They overran the entire peninsula, driving the Greeks to the shores of the Aegean, the Albanians into the Mirdite country, and the latinized population of Macedonia into the highland districts, such as Pindus, Agrapha and Olympus. The Slays, a primitive agricultural and pastoral people, were often unsuccessful in their attacks on the fortified towns, which remained centres of Hellenism. In the outlying parts of the peninsula they were absorbed, or eventually driven back, by the original populations, but in the central region they probably assimilated a considerable proportion of the latinized races. The western portions of the peninsula were occupied by Serb and Slovene tribes: the Slavs of the eastern and central portions were conquered at the end of the 7th century by the Bulgarians, a Ugro-Finnish horde, who established a despotic political organization, but being less numerous than the subjected race were eventually absorbed by it. The Mongolian physical type, which prevails in the districts between the Balkans and the Danube, is also found in central Macedonia, and may be recognized as far west as Ochrida and Dibra. In general, however, the Macedonian Slavs differ somewhat both in appearance and character from their neighbors beyond the Bulgarian and Servian frontiers: the peculiar type which they present is probably due to a considerable admixture of Vlach, Hellenic~ Albanian and Turkish blood, and to the influence of the surrounding races. Almost all independent authorities, however, agree that the bulk of the Slavonic population of Macedonia is Bulgarian. The principal indication is furnished by the language, which, though resembling Servian in some respects (e.g. the case-endings, which are occasionally retained), presents most of the characteristic features of Bulgarian…The Slavs of the eastern and southern regions are a quiet, sober, hardworking agricultural race, more obviously homogeneous with the population of Bulgaria.

Ethnic/ racial maps concerning the Macedonia and Vardar regions

Quote:

“From an ethnographical point of view the population of Macedonia is extremely mixed. The old maps, from that of Ami Bone (1847) down, follow tradition in regarding the Slav population of Macedonia as Bulgarian.”

-Carnegie Endowment for International peace, Commission to Inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan wars, published 1914

None of these racial/ ethnological maps record a “Macedonian” race/ ethnicity. Indeed no contemporary racial cartographer deems the Macedonist seperatists significant enough to be recorded in any maps. Ethnologists only recorded Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Turks, Vlachs/ Aromanians, Turks and other minorities such as Gypsy Roma, Armenians etc. (Click for higher resolution of pictures):

Map from 1877 by the British Stanford firm, studying the ethnology of Macedonia at the time:

Ethnograhical Map 1880s – by E. G. Ravenstein F.R.G.S. – Published by: New York, D. Appleton & Co

French Ethnocarte Map of Macedonia:

Shepards’ Peoples of Europe around 900:

This Racial Map of Europe does not mention a Macedonian race and cites most of Vardar as Bulgarian. [Source Records of the Great War (National Alumni 1923 Volume VII)]

The ethnicity of the villages around Skopje in the last years of Turkish rule. (Source: Makedonien, Landschafts- und Kulturbilder., Schultze Jena, 1927):

Further Ethnolgraphical and Lingustic Maps (click to enlarge):

French 1 – racial map: Macedonia

French 2 – linguistic map of Macedonia concerning Serb/ Bulgarian dialects

French 2 – Map of A. Boue, French (1840). A traveler and scholar who edited in 1840 his cornerstone piece “La Turquie d’Europe”. He traced almost precisely the borderlines separating the different races in Macedonia.

German 1 – Lingustic divisions of Europe in 1914

German 2 – Kiepert 1867 ethnographical map of Macedonia

German 3 – German map of the peoples and languages of Europe, end of 19th century

German 4 – Racial map of central and South Europe. Taken from F. W. Putzgers Historischer Schul-Atlas, 1905

German 5 – Der Grosse-Herder-Atlas

German 6 – Balkan-Region 1881

British 1 – H,N Brailsford, Macedonia. Its Races and their Future: Methuen & C.O

British 2 – P.C.G.N 1942 – Map drawn according to the lingustic divisions of Macedonia

British 3 – Ethnological map of Europe. (notice the green representing the South Slav races – Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Bulgarians but no Macedonians)

British 4 -Races of the Balkan peninsula, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923

Czech 1 – Map of T.Safarik, Czech (1842) (must be approached with caution to an extent due to bias on account of the man being a well known Slavicist)

Compare the above foreign ethnological maps with the following Serbian maps, where a group seperate of Bulgarians; the ‘Slavs of Macedonia’ appears. Both cite Jovan Cvijic as the source of the ethnological data, Cvijich being one of the cheif Serb proponents of ‘Macedonianism’ as discussed earlier in the article:

Serbian map 1 – “Ethnological map from the point of view of the Serbs“, map published by the 1914 Carnegie Commission on the Balkan wars, as an example of the Serbian view. Based on the ethnological data of Jovan Cvijich

Serbian map 2 – “Ethnographic map of the Balkan penninsula“, published in 1913 through Austrian channels but once again citing Cvijich as the collector of the ethnological material on which the map is based

By Voulgaroktonos

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