Archive for August 2010

Macedonia- The Bulgarian Uprising of 1903 in Official Documents from the United States Foreign Relations

August 30, 2010

From the official documents of the United States Foreign Relation in 1903, we have a clear view of the situation in Macedonia. In these documents the official FYROM’s propaganda collapses since no United States Foreign Relation mentions any “Macedonian” ethnicity but they highlight the fact that the insurgents were Bulgarians!!!

The American Consuls in their reports stress the terrible crimes commited by the Bulgarian Bands against Turkish and Greek population in Macedonia. Hundreds of villages were burned and non-combatant population were cruelly murdered.

The SlavoBulgarian Anti-Macedonian Struggle as it was reported by the United States Foreign Relations Papers of 1903!

SlavoBulgarian Anti-Macedonian Struggle, 1897-1903

August 28, 2010

One of the less known aspects of the Macedonian question has been the needlessly Cruel methods and Crimes commited by the SlavoBulgarian Komitadjis against the Greek population of Macedonia. The Bulgarian bands had been notorious for their murders and outrages against non-combatants and especially the Greeks of Macedonia.  The list is certainly not complete and never will be, since noone could ever count ALL atrocities perpertuated by Komitadji Butchers.

The victims range in social position from the peasant to the landowner and the merchant. A number of priests are also among the murdered. Whole families have been exterminated in some cases while women and children have not escaped from the murdering enstict of Komitadjis. Some of the victims were accused of denouncing the perpetrators of the outrages, and others incureed the hatred of the insurrectionists by refusing either to join the Bulgarian bands or give monetary assistance, but most of those who have suffered death were the innocent victims of a campaign which is being waged neither in the interests of justice nor of liberty.

Members of one of the Bulgarian bands entered the house of the Saramantos family from Babiani. Without explanation or reason given, they murdered Costas Saramantos, his wifein the presence of their son Nicolas and also put to death a nephew of the old man and the nephew’s wife. Nicolas was spared only because the Bulgarian murderers required him to take a message to the brigands’s camp. This is a frequent true story reiterated over and over by SlavoBulgarian inhuman criminals against Greeks.

Below is cited a list of Macedonian names cruelly murdered by Komitadji savages. (Source ΑΠΘ)

slavobulgariancrimes 1 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 2 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 4 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 5 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 6 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 7 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 8 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 9 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 10 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 11 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

slavobulgariancrimes 12 SlavoBulgarian Anti Macedonian Struggle, 1897 1903

Macedonian History and FYROM’s Propaganda #1 “The use of the term Macedonia was forbidden in Greece until 1988″

August 25, 2010


FYROM’s Slavs claim that the use of the term “MAKEDONIA” in Greece was forbidden until 1988 and that no province with the name “MAKEDONIA” (Macedonia) existed in Northern-Greece before 1988. 

There are many examples for state institutions or privat corporations which use the term “MAKEDONIA” in Greece since the end of 19th century and still use it:

Newspaper “Makedonia” paper of 4th April of 1878

Makedonia newspaper

Faros Of Macedonia – paper of 29th November 1887.

Ermis of Thessaloniki – paper of 24th Octomber of 1875.


Official document from the Kingdom of Greece in 1922, mentioning the name of the commanding officer of…Macedonia.

The Greek government had given the title  “Governor General of Macedoniato the Greek minister of the Macedonia region in Greece.


In early 1923 the Governor-General of Macedonia, Achilleas Lambros, conducted an ethnological survey of this region.(30) According to Lambros, the statistical data came (a) from the official Greek census of 1920, (b) from another census conducted at about the same time on behalf of the Foreign Ministry and (c) from information derived from various local officials.

This figure is also supported by an 1912 unofficial and unpublished census found in the papers of the first Greek Governor-General of Macedonia, Stefanos Dragoumis.(25)
(25.) Archeio Stefanou Dragoumi [Stefanos Dragoumis Papers], F.116.4., Governor-General of Thessaloniki to the Prime Minister, Thessaloniki, 4 November 1913, ref. 17210

general governor of Macedonia

1923: “In the course of conversation, Mr. Lambros [Governor General of Macedonia], actually said that the present was a good opportunity to get rid of the Bulgars [sic] who remained in this area and who had always been a source of trouble for Greece.

We can easily find references in international press.

Time Magazine – Aug. 04, 1924 

The Greek Government crisis was weathered.Out walked Premier Papanastasiou (TIME, July 28) and in trotted Premier Sofoulis, ex-Governor of Macedonia, followed by five staunch supporters:Premier and Marine: S. Sofoulis.  

Finance: M. Tsouderos, ex-Foreign Minister under Venizelos.  

Foreign Affairs: Georges Roussos, ex-Foreign Minister and one-time Minister to the U. S.  

War: General Katehakis.  

Interior: General Peter Mavromiethaelis.  

Agriculture: M. Mylonas, also in the Venizelos Cabinet.…718771,00.html
Time Magazine, ‘New Cabinet’ Monday, Aug. 04, 1924  

 Time Magazine, ‘Toward Warm Water?’, Monday, Jul. 23, 1945

What was going on? The Greek Governor General of Macedonia said that no refugees were streaming into Yugoslavia,…803589,00.html
Time Magazine, ‘Toward Warm Water?’, Monday, Jul. 23, 1945

The Greek Company of Scientific Researches were publishing books in Greece while sending similar reports to the Greek government under the title “Economy of Macedonia” in 1928.

The Greek “Club of scholars from Macedonia” were sending reports to the Greek government from education in Macedonia, having in the cover pictures of Alexander the Great in 1932.

The undergraduates in the University of Thessalonike were listening to their Rector adressing them for being lucky to be in “the heart of Macedonia” just in





The building of the Society of Macedonian Studies founded in 1934. You do not need to know Greek to read the word in the middle: Makedonikwn=Macedonian

    Newspaper “MAKEDONIA” March 1940

Makedonika Magazine -1940



Pan-Macedonian Association – 1947  

National Geographic Map of 1958  

National Geographic 1958 map  

Zoom in here  


Macedonia (Greek:Μακεδονία) is a Greek daily newspaper first published in 1911 by Vellidis.

The Society for Macedonian Studies


In the spring of 1939, a number of distinguished citizens of Thessaloniki founded the Society for Macedonian Studies as a legal entity of private law.
The Society for Macedonian Studies founded the Institute for Balkan Studies, initially as one of its own departments. The latter is now an independent body in its own right, with the Society for Macedonian Studies represented by three of the seven members of the Administrative Board. Another foundation is the Historical Archive of Macedonia, and the Society was also co-founder of the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle.  

NationMaster – Encyclopedia: Macedonia (newspaper)  


It was founded in 1926 and since then the term Macedonia is always used officialy in the greatest  International event of Thessalonike. For further infos see International Fair Trade Topic  

International Fair of Thessalonike  


Efimeris Kyverniseos” [Official Newspaper of the Greek Government] 15th Feb. of 1963.

Greek Kingdom honours Makedonomachoi between 1902-1908 


Map of Greece from 1973  

University o Texas 

The Society for Macedonian Studies – 1975  

Art Gallery of the Society for Macedonian Studies



Founded in 1975, this was the first organised visual art institution in the city, its purpose being to promote and disseminate modern Greek art, mainly that of northern Greece. […] The collection comprises more than 400 works, mainly paintings, sculptures, and engravings, mostly by artists from Thessaloniki and Macedonia in general, though there are also works by major artists from the rest of Greece and other countries too.

Art Gallery of the Society for Macedonian Studies by Greece Museums Guide – #1 Travel Guide to Greek Culture

The term Macedonia was also used in Greek school books.  

Geography School book of 1977  

greek geography school book mentioning Macedonia  

History of Macedonia  


Thessaloniki Museum of the Macedonian Struggle

The Society which is responsible for the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle is that of the “Frieds of the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle”, a private association founded in Thessaloniki in 1979.
Greece uses the term“MAKEDONIA” even before Macedonia was liberated.  FYROM’s propagandistic claim that the greek Term “MAKEDONIA” was forbidden in Greece is totally clumsy and another lie used by FYROM’s propagandists.  

Many thanks to the members of MacedoniaOnTheWeb for gathering all that info. Source:

Ancient Macedonian Greekness and explanation of the term ‘Barbaroi’ by N.G.L. Hammond

August 24, 2010
Deductions and explanation of the term ‘barbaroi’


The deductions are the following. The Macedonians and the Magnesians lived ‘around Pieria and Olympus’, which I take to be the high ground where there were fine summer pastures. Each spoke its own dialect of Greek. The dialects were related to one another. But both were different from the dialects which developed among the Greeks south of Mt Olympus. At some time before ca. 1200 B. C. the Magnesians migrated to dwell ‘around Peneus and Pelion’, and centuries later in the archaic period they were talking a dialect of Aeolic Greek which differed from two other groups of Aeolic dialect in Thessaly. It was a characteristic of the transhumant pastoral groups of the Vlachs that they conserved dialectal distinctions, the Vlachs for instance on Olympus and Pieria having a distinct and strong dialect. The Macedonian speech was regarded by the Greeks of Ionic, Doric and Aeolic dialects as a backward brogue, but there was no doubt that their speech was Greek. Late in the fifth century Hellanicus saw a kinship of the Macedonian dialect with the Aeolic dialect; that kinship may have developed through contacts of Macedonia with Thessalians, Perrhaebians and Magnesians. In the fourth century the standard form of Greek, the koine, was probably gaining ground even in the homeland of the Macedonians. In 371 B. C. we see the first evidence of Macedonia being included in the company of Greek states. The speakers of the other 3 dialects, Ionic, Doric and Aeolian developed the city-state as their chief political form. It was republican, racist, and generally democratic, and it prided itself on its intellectual and cultural standing. The Macedonians and the Molossian tribes, whether in Epirus or in what is now West Macedonia, were entirely different; for they were tribal states, usually monarchical, and culturally backward. Even Aristotle who knew the Macedonian court held that people who were ruled by a king had to be so ruled because they lacked the intelligence to govern themselves.

Thucydides drew a firm line between the settled, civilized city-states and ‘many parts of Hellas’ which ‘still follow the old fashion, the Ozolian Locrians for instance, the Aetolians, the Acarnanians and that region of the continent’ (1.5.3), and he compared that old fashion with the barbarian way of life (1.6.6). It is therefore not surprising that he called some tribes of northern Greece ‘barbarians’: Amphilochi (3.112.7), those near Cheimerium (1.47.3; 1.50.3), being Thesproti), Chaones, Molossi, Atintanes, Parauaei, Orestai (2.68.9; 2.80.5; 2.81-2), tribes of Upper Macedonia (4.124.1 and 126.3), and probably the Macedonians proper (4.124.1 and 126.3). As we have seen, inscriptions show beyond dispute that the Molossi and the Macedones were Greek-speaking in the lifetime of Thucydides. He therefore used the term ‘barbaroi’ not in a linguistic sense but in a cultural sense.21 As an example of the abusive term ‘barbarian’ we may cite the fragment of Thrasymachus, written on behalf of the democrats of Larissa: ‘Shall we who are Greeks be the slaves of the barbarian Archelaus?’ (Αρχελάω δουλεύσομεν Έλληνες όντες βαρβάρω ;). As a member of the Temenid family Archelaus was of the noblest Greek descent, like the oligarchic Aleuadae of Larissa and the kings of Sparta. The jibe put in the mouths of the democrats was vitupera-tive, not linguistic. Similarly Demosthenes called a Macedonian king (Perdiccas II, but not named) ‘a Barbarian’ (3.24), and he dismissed Philip as ‘not only no Hellene, not only not related to the Hellenes, but not even a barbarian from a country that one could acknowledge with credit – he is a pestilent Macedonian, from whose country it used not to be possible to buy even a slave of any value’ (9.31). Such cheap parody is matched by wartime songs about the Siegfried Line or the genitals of Adolf. Scholars have taken more seriously a passage in Isocrates, Philippus 107 f. Isocrates was writing in 346 B. C. about the founder of the Macedonian kingdom, presumably Perdiccas I, as a Heraclid who went out from Argos in the Peloponnese to obtain a throne. Isocrates claimed, as Aristotle was claiming that the Hellenes would not submit to monarchy but that the others could not organise their lives without it. So Perdiccas was unique in going beyond ‘the Hellenic area’ and claiming rule over ‘a race not of the same tribe’ (ουχ ομοφύλω γένους άρχειν αξιώσας). This last phrase has been interpreted as ‘of non-kindred race’ and as indicating ‘the feeling of a major difference’. 

But one has only to cite from Thucydides 1.102.3 the Spartans’ reflection that the Athenians were ‘of another tribe’ (αλλοφύλους αμα ηγησάμενοι), i. e. lonians as distinct from Dorians. The meaning of Isocrates is that the Macedonians were a different tribe from the Argives. There was no statement that the Macedonians spoke a different language or were of non-Greek origins. Finally, it has been assumed sometimes that when Herodotus wrote of the Dorian family (genos) living in Pindus and being called ‘Makednon’ (a term he resumed at 8.43 with the word ethnos), he meant Macedonian and proposed that the Dorians and Macedonians were in some sense fused. But when Herodotus meant Macedonians, he said Macedonians and he used the adjective Μακεδονικόν (7.13 1). His own usage shows that Μακεδνόν had an altogether different meaning. The term ‘Hellenes’ is sometimes a cause of misunderstanding. Thucydides limited its application to the genealogy of Deucalion – Hellen – sons of Hellen  (i. e. Doros, Xouthos and Aiolos), and he envisaged their descendants being invited into existing states, establishing communication with one another, and eventually adopting a common name ‘Hellenes’ (1.3.2-4). He seems to have assumed an expansion by these descendants from Phthiotis in Thessaly southwards. He did not include under the term ‘Hellenes’ the descendants of Deucalion  Thyia – sons of Thyia (Magnes and Macedon), nor any of the other Greek-speaking peoples west, northwest and northeast of Thessaly. One may name them as Amphilochians, Thesprotians, Molossians, Chaones, Dassaretae, Elimeotae, Tymphaei, Parauaei, Orestae, Lyncestae, Pelagones, Magnesians, Macedonians, Bottiaei (in Bottike) and Chalcideis. It is thus obvious that Thucydides used ‘Hellenes’ to mean the descendants of Hellen and of the peoples into whose states they moved, and not to mean ‘Greek-speaking peoples’. 

 In two passages Thucydides did comment on the speech of a people who were not in his sense of the word ‘Hellenes’. Amphilochia and its capital city, Argos, were peopled by emigrants from Peloponnesian Argos, whose leader was Amphiaraus just after the Trojan War. He and his followers, like the other fighters against Troy, were Greek-speakers in Thucydides’ opinion. Then ‘many generations later’ the men of the capital city accepted as fellow-citizens men of Ambracia, a colony of Corinth, who spoke the Doric dialect. When that dialect prevailed, the Amphilochian Argives ‘were Hellenised in their present speech  … but the other Amphilochians are barbarians’ (2.68.5) (ηλληνίσθησαν την νυν γλώσσαν). The distinction here was between the Doric dialect and a different dialect of Greek speech. The other passage described the cities of the Athos peninsula as inhabited ‘by a mixture of tribes of bilingual barbarians, and there is among them a small Chalcidic element, but the majority is Pelasgic’ (4.109.4).

Here the term ‘bilingual’ (δίγλωσσος) meant that the native language was non-Greek but that Greek was also spoken.On the other hand the Chalcidic element spoke Greek as its native language. These Chalcideis were distinct from the colonial settlers who had come in the eighth and later centuries to the Chalcidic peninsula from Andros and from Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea. Inscriptions have revealed that they spoke a form of the Ionic dialect which differed from the Euboean Ionic dialect. The explanation is that their ancestors had settled there much earlier, either in the Late Mycenaean period or/and in the course of the Ionic Migration of c. 1000 B. C.28 Thucydides recognised them as Greek-speakers; but, to take the Amphilochians as an analogy, he would not have regarded them as ‘Hellenes’.


Source: Literary Evidence for Macedonian Speech, Clare College, Cambridge 

Inscriptions and especially some recorded toponyms have revealed to us that the Bottiaei who lived in the hinterland of the Chalcidic peninsula were speakers of Greek. Thucydides mentioned them and the Chalcideis on several occasions without saying what their speech was; but he did explain that the Bottiaei had previously lived in the Lower Macedonian plain. Their own tradition was that their founder was Botton, who had brought their ancestors from Crete via Taras (Tarentum) and settled them in the Lower Macedonian plain according to Strabo 279, 282 and 329 fr. 1 la. The time must have been between the Mycenaean occupation of Cnossos and the collapse of Mycenaean rule in Crete. Once again we have a Greek-speaking people whom Thucydides would not have regarded as Hellenes. These examples help us to understand the statements by Isocrates that a man of Peloponnesian Argos in founding the royal family among the Macedonians (c. 700-650 B. C.) went beyond ‘the Hellenic area’ and ruled over ‘a race not of the same tribe’.
                                                  Nicholas G. L. Hammond


By Andreas

Macedonians of Megarovo, Tirnovo and Nizopolis send a letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople declaring being proud Greeks on 1885

August 22, 2010

January 7, 1885

 FROM: The Greek Community of Megarovo, Tirnovo and Nizopolis {Pelagonia, between Big Prespa and Monastiri}

TO: The Patriarch of Constantinople

“Your Holiness the Ecumenical Patriarch,We have been aware of the memorandum submitted on December the 22nd to the Ambassador of H.M. the Queen of Britain to the Sublime Porte {the Sultan } by the Greek Orthodox community of Monastiri versus the lies regarding Macedonia

expressed by journalists in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, regarding the would-be Macedonians and representatives of Macedonia as a whole we starkly share the official disproval, accomplished with this memorandum, of the publications in European Newspapers by the Belgian publicist Emile Lavelay and the Russian Ms Novicof on Macedonia, called third part of Bulgaria

and against the rallies orginised by the would-be Macedonians in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, and against all of the malicious solicitations of the panslavistic comitates in these and other countries, and having already protested after the inclusion of parts of Macedonia in Bulgaria according to San Stefano treaty, as we already forsee that the panslavistic comitates shall not cease acting for the complete slavification and occupation of Macedonia and sending in Macedonia gangs of banditguerrilas {sic} trained in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia to achieve their goals,

we proclaim that we reject with indignation the present and future intrigues and officially protest :

1. Against publications in European Newspapers by the Belgian publicist Emile Lavelay and the Russian Ms Novicof attributing a wholly Bulgarian nature to Macedonia, and we proclaim that they are unsubstancial lies, intending only to mislead the public opinion and achieve the conquest goals of panslavism acting via its forces in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.

2. Against those who present themselves as Macedonians and would-be representatives of the totality of Macedonia in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia and using Macedonia’s name organise rallys and send plaints to the European Powers asking for the unification of Macedonia with Bulgaria, we squarely denounce these rallys and we consider all of their plaints invalid, because not only the Greek element in Macedonia itself outnumbers the created Bulgarian one, but along with the Ottoman element it forms an absolute majority and therefore any unification of Macedonia with Bulgaria is unthinkable.

3. We protest against the action taken by the panslavistic comitates and their banditguerrilas groups (…)

4. Being genuine Macedonians and willing to remain so in the future, by the means of our Greek language which we utilise in our commercial transactions and exclusively use in our schools and Churches, having nothing in common with the Bulgarians and fake Macedonians beyond the Aimos ( Balkan ) and the Rhodopi regarding our ethnic language and identity,

we flatly denounce the totality of their chimaeric ideas and willings to unite Macedonia with Bulgaria.

Having redacted and signed the present protestation memorandum we send it to your Divine and Respectable Holiness by our Archpriest Pelagonias Matthew, (…)

Kissing your Holiness we the undersigning

In Monastiri the 7th of January, 1885

Faithful children of your Divine Holiness

Orthodox Greeks and subjects of the Sublime Porte

The Greek orthodox Community of Tyrnovo

The Priests of the orthodox Greek Community

Papa Stergios Naoum, Papa Georgios Christou, Papa Stergios Anastasiou, Papa Nikolaos Anagnostou

Giannakis M. Tzipou, Mpanos Naoum, Petros Chr. Thanou, Stergios Chr. Zithotis, Minas Christodoulou, Taskos Georgiou, Dimitrios Ath. Graikos, Giannis Dimitriou, Dimitrios Leazi Christou, Dimitrios Mikrou, Ioannis G. Zioga, Taskos G. Mizotas, Kostas Nikolaou, Georgios Gossen, Athanasios Georgoftsan, Dimitrios Iosif, Nikolaos A. Maroulis, Stergios Zisi Tahoula, Michalis Dimitriou, Stergios Dimitri, Michalis G. Damianou, Michael Iosif, Giannakis Iosif, Nikolaos Laolikou, Gisos Stergiou, Giannakis Stergiou, Pericles D. Vafeiadis, Christos G. Ziogas, Lazaros G. Graikos, Georgios Konstantinidis, Christos Dimitriou, Georgios Nikolaidis, Iosif Dimitriou, Nikolaos Theohari, Michael Sidera, Georgios Kosta, Dimitrios Vaggeli, Thanos Vaggeli, Zikas Damianou, Nasis Sidera, Thomas Nikola, Ioannis Georgiou, Vaggelis Mitrousi, Kotsos Zisi, Stergios Dina, Fanis Adam, Lazaros Gianni, Dimitrios Naska, Christos Petrou, Nikolaos Ath. Graikos, Kostos Dimitriou, Markos Konstantinou, Georgios Rapi, Kostis Stergiou, Naoum Amand, Taskos G. Kyriazis, Stergios Giannakis, Dimitrios G. Mpella, Nikolaos Theodorou, S. Stefanos Partalis, Asterios Giannoulis, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Loukas Konstantinidis.

The Representative of the Community of Tyrnovo I overseal that there is no Bulgarian here.

Nikolaos K. Kyriazis

(Demogerontia {Greek Community} seal)

(mouxcharis {ottoman authority} seal)

The Greek Community of Nizopolis

Papa Zisis, Papa Michail, Tezios Thoma, Nouli Tachi, Zisis Nastou, Zisis Kousiou, Kolas Tepsa, Giagos Tzouka , Symeon Tzoianou, Petsos Tasi, Tegios Tachi, Stergios Mpalogiannis, Stergios Mpeltsou, Vasilakis Tezou, Stefos Zisi, Stergios Sarpou, Kola Tsot, Ioannis Karozi, Kousis Mechtasis.

The Representative of the Community of Nizopolis I overseal that there is no Bulgarian here.

Konstantinos Chrysochoou

(Demogerontia {Greek Community} seal)

(mochtaris {ottoman authority} seal)

Community of Megarovo entirely Greek

Papa Vaggelis, Papa Giannakis, Papa Stergiou, Papa Christos, Papa Giannakis, Diamantis Petrou, Ioannis Dalla, Dimitrios A. Zografou, Anastasios G. Kyzias, Konstantinos N. Maltou, Stergios N. Maltou, Stergios Grirtsou, Stergios Tzoka, Stergios Stergiou, Michalis Georgiou, Giannakis K. Vitsa, Zisis Georgiou, Ntinos Zioga, Georgios Zourtoumou, Konstantinos Grammata, Anastasios Vasileiou, Naoum Varzakos, Sokratis D. Zografou, Nikolaos Marina, Vasilakis Ioannou, Nikolaos M. Kousosis, Michalis Theodorou, Kostis I. Nintza, Stergios K. Ioannidis, Kostis D. Ntalaka, Konstantinos I. Mpela, Theodoros Gouramari, Adam K. Koufonikola, Nikolaos Tzapanou, Giannakis Tzapanou, Zisis Tzapanou Anastasios Dovas, Georgios N. Zografou, Andreas Koutsaie, Konstantinos Papastergiou, Giannakis Dalegas, Nikolaos I. Dodoumi, Theodoros I. Gardiki, Dimitris Kokkas, Georgios Zartsi, Michail Dodoumi, Zisis Konstantinou, Anastasios Adam, Dimitrios Anastasiou, Georgios Dimitriou, Mitros Smyrlis, Michail K. Toli, Nikola St. Nikoli, Pantelis N. Graikos, Gousios D. Katragari, Athanasios K. Mouza, Tasos Georgiou, Kozi Dimitriou, Athanasios Kertzou, Minas Varzakos, Stergios K. Vaggeli, Georgios N. Kokosi, Thomas Kostou, Nakos Dima, Stergios Dima, Dimitrios N. Kodari

The teachers

Petros Ioannou, Petros M. Korinas, Konstantinos Athanasiadis, Georgios N. Karlagani, Nikolaos D. Nikou, Stefanos Christou, Stergios Peperkou, Gousios Christou, I.A. Gerdiki, Gousios Dendrou

The Representative of Megarovo

Stergios A. Dogas

(mouchtaris {ottoman authority} seal)

(comitee seal)

Source: Macedonian FAQ (Hellenic), posted by Miltoss

Macedonian names of 14th Century reveal the Greek character of Macedonia

August 21, 2010


Examination of Macedonian Names of 14th Century in the Themes of Thessalonike and Strymon reveals the Greek Character of Macedonia 

  THE study of names can tell us a great deal about a society, for names are primarily a means of social identification. People identify themselves or are identified by others in ways which may reveal kinship patterns, migration movements, economic differentiation or social stratification, superstitious beliefs. Children may habitually be named after the paternal or maternal grandparents, after parents or Siblings. Names may show adherence to a religion or to superstition: the Byzantine parents who named their children Aporicto or Evreto (“rejected” and “founding”) were trying to deceive death, while a man named Prousenos testified to his parents’ nostalgia for a lost homeland in Asia Minor. Proper or family names which continue over more than one generation can show the interest of the family itself or of the state in identifying people over time.  

 The Byzantine peasants in Macedonia of the fourteenth century were commonly identified by a baptismal or given name and some other form of identification: a profession, an indication of geographical origin, a nickname, or an indication of relationship to someone else. Both the given names and the “family” names are of interest here. 

 Some names are very common. Men are often named Nikolaos, Demetrios, Konstantinos, Ioannes, Vasileios,  

Michael, Manouel, Stamates, Theodoros. Somewhat less frequent are the names Modestos, Nikephoros, Theiotokios, Kyriakos, Foteinos, Athanasios, Petros, Alexios, Stefanos, Xenos. Most of these, with the exception of Xenos, Alexios, Modestos and Foteinos, are also common modern Greek names. On the other hand, Evangelos and Eleutherios, which occur frequently in modern Greece, are rare in the fourteenth century.  

 Women were most often called Maria and Anna (as in modern Greece), Zoe, Arete, Chryse, Argyre, Kale, Theodora, Eirene, Xene, Eudokia, Elene, Georgia, and less frequently Vasilike, Ioannousa, Kyriakia, Rossana or Rossa, Siligno, Sophia, Foteine, Theophano, Stammatike, and Marina. The name Aikaterine, one of the commonest modern Greek names, is very rarely encountered.Some Christian names are very similar to those found among the peasants of the Morea in the same period. They fall into three categories: 

 (1) Those referring to God, the Virgin, and Christ; 

 (2) Saints’ names; and  

(3) Those deriving from feasts of the Christian calendar.  

In the first category, we find Theodoros, Theodora (“gift of God”), Manouel from Emmanuel (the popular form Manolis does not appear in our documents), Theochares, Theiotokios (from the Theotokos, or “mother of God”), Panagiotes, from the adjective of the Virgin which qualifies her as “most saintly,” and Christina. Maria, of course, was a very common name.  

The saints most often celebrated in peasant names were Theodore, Demetrius, and George (all military saints), Athanasius and Basil (the fourth-century church fathers), Constantine, the first Christian Emperor, and Helena, his mother. St. Peter is frequently represented, and the name of his assistant, Andronicus, appears occasionally.  

A whole series of baptismal names consists of toponymics, something which one would not expect. Giving a child the name of a city or an island must mean that the family had had recent  connections with the area referred to. In all three apographai under discussion, the greatest number of toponymies comes from Macedonia itself but, of course, outside the domain in which these families are found. This is an expected and logical situation. It simply means that the population of mobile one, moved more easily within rather confined boundaries. Names like Fourneiotes, Kasandrenos, Melenikeiotes, Ravenikiotes, Didymoteichites, Zigniotes indicate that the families had migrated within Macedonia from one domain and one region to another.  

toponymics thessalonike theme1 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia 

 Immigration from the rest of Greece, as suggested by names such as Thebaios, Korinthios, Moraites, could be as old as the Latin occupation,but has no reason to be; it is more likely that the emigration  in question followed the reestablishment of Byzantine power in Macedonia, and perhaps even the reestablishment of the Empire at Constantinople. Immigrants from the islands of the Aegean (that is, people bearing the names Lemnaios, Nesiotes, Naxiotes) probably came to Macedonia in the second half of the thirteenth century, after the wars of Michael  VIII with the remaining Latin states had made life on the islands uncertain.  

Some names are obviously of foreign origin, of these mostly are Slavic but also French, Italian and Spanish. Dragos, Draganos, Slanna, Tobranna, Dragna, Zougla, Malha, Merzana, Volkanos, Tobromeros, are all Slavic names. Imbert the Franc(“Μπέρον ο Φράγγος,”) was probably of French origin, while Nikephoros Idalkos, son of Dominick, was the offspring of a Spaniard, perhaps a member of the Catalan Company who had for some reason remained in Macedonia after the invasion of the region by Catalan mercenaries in 1307-1309. 

An examination of the households which have a timeseries from 1300-1301 to 1341 reveal that: 

(a) Theme of Thessalonike  

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 8% out of the total  during 1300-1301 

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 5% out of the total  during 1320-1321 

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 3% out of the total  during 1338-1341 

(b) Theme of Strymon

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 26% out of the total  ca. 1316

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 16% out of the total  ca. 1325

The Slavic Names constitutes Only 30% out of the total  ca. 1341

slavic names strymon theme Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

It is characteristic that those who from time to time are designated as Μακεδόνες (=Macedonians) are always members of Byzantine society or the Byzantine army, speaking the same language and apparently following the same faith, and that they never appear to turn, as the head of a certain group, against the Byzantine state.

This category does not appear to include the more recent immigrants to Macedonia, evidently because they retained their own ethnic particularity (language, religion, culture, etc.) and, more important still, their independence from the Byzantine rule. Thus, for example, in no case could any Bulgars, Slavs or Turks who were known to have settled in the region after a certain period (and who, indeed, became the permanent residents) ever be described as Μακεδόνες (=Macedonians).


1 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

2 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

3 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

4 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

5 Macedonian Names of 14th Century reveal the Greek Character of Macedonia

Sources :

Laiou-Thomadakis Angeliki, “Peasant Society in the Late Byzantine Empire“,

Ioannes  Tarnanides, “Οι Κατά Μακεδονίαν Σκλαβήνοι”

Macedonian sacrifices for their Motherland Hellas in a Document of 1865

August 20, 2010

The following document is a  sample of the immense sacrifices commited by Macedonians in favor of their motherland Hellas.  Its an application written by Chrysafis Anastasiou, a Macedonian as himself signs, to the Greek government with date  19.6.1865 where inside he describes his soul-stirring life story.

He was born in Naoussa, Macedonia. He particiapted like many other Macedonians in the Greek revolution where he had his father and many of his relatives, including his mother and sister, killed. Himself was captured by Turks and after 3 years in capture, his surviving relatives paid ransom and managed to be released.

This Macedonian like his relatives “never stopped fighting for Greece” and “praising the names of Liberty and Greece“. In 1865, while being old and ill, he requested from the related commitee of the Greek government a frugal help through this application.

Chrysafis Document of 1865   Sacrifices of Macedonians for their motherland Hellas

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