Archive for December 2006

Modern historians about Macedonia – Victor Ehrenberg

December 31, 2006

Quotes from the book “The Greek State” by Victor Ehrenberg
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The king of the Macedonians was now a member of the Synhedrion, whose decrees had to be expressly ratified by the individual states. These Hellenistic Leagues, directed by Macedon, rounded off a process of which the general unity is unmistakable, quite apart from all that was conditioned by the time and the special circumstances of each case.

“The Greek State” by Victor Ehrenberg, p120

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For the Greeks of the third century B.C., it is true, the Hellenistic world was only an extension of the earlier Greek world; that in itself is perhaps sufficient justification for including the present discussions under the one general title. There is more to add. It was Greeks who most strongly determined the general spirit and the cultural form of the Hellenistic age. It was the Greek spirit which, nourished and merged in the stream of Greek evolution, took over the local influences

“The Greek State” by Victor Ehrenberg, p135

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Alexander and the Macedonians carried Greek civilization into the East. It is, I believe, a historical fact that a command was issued by the king to the Greek states to worship him as a god; with this the monarchy took a new form, which went far beyond the Macedonian or Persian model, and which was destined to have immense importance in world history. How far Alexander deliberately tried to Hellenize the East remains uncertain; but the outcome certainly was that he opened up the world to a Greek

“The Greek State” by Victor Ehrenberg, p139

Modern historians about Macedonia – Chester G. Starr

December 31, 2006

Quote:

..the full dimensions of the next great phase of Greek civilization did no tgeneraly become apparent until the generation of Alexander. then came the conquest of the Persian empire and the establishment of great Greco-Macedonian monarchies over most of the Near East.

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 391

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During the syrian war Ptolemy IV turned in desperation to native Egyptians and trained them in the Greek Fashion(217 B.C)

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 391

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In military and political respects the Hellenistic world was administered in a Greek manner, though under the control of absolute monarchs.

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 391

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The religius complex of Karnak is perhaps the most extensive ever created in the western world, and additions were still made to it in the days of Greek rule after Alexander

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 92

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But even in Cyprus, where Greek-speaking peoples had secured a foothold at the end of the Mycenean era

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 216

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In a broader view, Alexander’s meteoric conquests were an explosion of the Greek world.Earlier in the fourth century, Persia had appeared strong and Hellas weak; but this situation, born of Greek disunit, had actuall been the reverse of reality, Once Philip had forcibly drawn the Greeks together, his son could move swiftly.

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 394

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The backbone was composed of the Macedonians who fought the battles but Alexander had also Greek contingents from the League of Corinth, who were employed in garrisons and as line-of-communications troops, and also important bands of mercenary Cretan archers and other light-armed troops. A regular staff, secretaries, scientists, and philosophers accompanied the king

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 397

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Immediately thereafter he [Alexander] moved to Troy, where he offered libations to the Greek heroes of epic legend and took a sacred shiled which had traditionally been dedicated by the Greeks;[/

‘A History of the Ancient World’ By Chester G. Starr, page 397

Modern historians about Macedonia – Fergus Millar

December 31, 2006

Quote:

“Hadrian… also founded a temple of `Zeus Panhellenios’, and established Panhellenic games and an annual Panhellenic assembly of deputies from ALL THE CITIES OF GREECE and all those outside which could prove their foundation FROM GREECE;…The importance attached to Hadrian’s institution is best illustrated by an early third-century inscription from THESSALONICA honouring a local magnate, T.Aelius Geminius Macedo [i.e., the Macedonian], who had not only held magistracies and provided timber for a basilica in his own city, and been Imperial `curator’ of Apollonia, but had been archon of the PANHELLENIC congress in Athens, priest of the deified Hadrian and president of the eighteenth PANHELLENIC Games (199/200); the inscription mentions proudly that he was the first `archon’ of the Panhellenic Congress from the city of Thessalonica. That was one side of the picture, the development of Greek civilization and the CONSCIOUS CELEBRATION OF ITS UNITY AND PROSPERITY. In the native populations of the East it produced mixed feelings, nowhere better exemplified than the conversation of three Rabbis of the second century,…”

<Fergus Millar, “The Roman Empire and its Neighbours,” 2nd ed. (London: Duckworth, 1981), pp.205-206>

Modern historians about Macedonia – George Cawkwell

December 31, 2006

Quote:

The Macedonians were Greeks. Their language was Greek, to judge by their personal names and by the names of the months of the calendar; Macedonian ambassadors could appear before the Athenian assembly without needing interpreters; in all Demosthenes’ sneers about their civilization there is no hint that Macedonians spoke other than Greek. But it was a distinct dialect not readily intelligible to other Greeks;
linguistically as geographically, Macedonia was remote from the main stream of Greek life. King Alexander ‘the Philhellene’ had been allowed to compete in the Olympic Games only after his claim to being Greek had
been fortified by the claim that the Macedonian ruling house had originated in Argos in the Peloponnese, which really conceded that those who sneered at Macedonia as ‘barbarian’ were right. The sneers went on.
The sophist Thrasymachus at the end of the fifth century referred even to king Archelaus as a ‘barbarian.’ Isocrates in the fourth no less than Demosthenes spoke of the Macedonians as ‘barbarians.’ The truth was that Macedon was as culturally backward as it was liguistically remote, and even the exact Thucydides classed it as ‘barbarian.’* Archelaus began to change all this and to make clear the Greeknes of his country. It was
under him that the city of Pella began to be not only the ‘greatest city in Macedonia’ but also a show-place which Greeks desired to visit, a centre of Greek culture. Archelaus was a generous patron of the arts,
and the leading literary figures of the age were happy to reside at his court. Euripides spent his last years in Macedon, and wrote there the Bacchae and the Archelaus. At Dium in the foothills of Mount Olympus a
Macedonian Olympic Festival was instituted which included a drama competition. There must have been as appreciateive audience. Under Archelaus, Macedon had ceased to be a cultural backwater.”

George Cawkwell’s (Fellow of the University College, Oxford)
“Philip of Macedon,” Faber & Faber, London, 1978, pp. 22-3:

Modern historians about Macedonia – Anthony E. David

December 31, 2006

Quote:

The history of ancient Egyptian civilisation covers a period from c.3100 BC to the conquest of the country by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Before the Dynastic Period (beginning c.3100 BC), the communities laid the foundations for the later great advances in technological, political, religious and artistic developments; this is generally referred to as the Predynastic Period (c.5000-3100 BC). After *Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC, the country was ruled by a line of Macedonian Greeks who descended from *Alexander’s general, Ptolemy (who became *Ptolemy I). The last of this dynasty, *Cleopatra VII, failed to prevent the absorption of Egypt into the Roman Empire in 30 BC, and subsequently Egypt was ruled by Rome as a province

Anthony E. David ‘A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt’

Last Updated ( Saturday, 25 November 2006 )

Modern historians about Macedonia – J. E. G. Whitehorne

December 31, 2006

Quote:

Perdiccas II was one of five sons of Alexander I, the king who had first proved the hellenic bona fides of the Argead House to the game marshals at Olympia. Despite a sunsequent blot upon his record as a good Greek when he failed to join in immediate pursuit of the defeated persians as they withdrew through his territories i 479/9 BC

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Out of the rich spoils of his victory over them he was able to dedicate solid godl statues of himself at the major Greek shrines of Delphi and Olympia

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The inherent value of these splendid monuments (incidentally the earliest know portait statues of a Greek ruler) has ensure they have long since dissapeared, but their dedication was enough to secure Alexander’s hellenic status for all time.

“Cleopatras” By J. E. G. Whitehorne page 15

Modern historians about Macedonia – M. E. Thalheimer

December 31, 2006

Quote:

In 334 B.C. Alexander with his 35,000 Greeks crossed the strait which had been passed by Xerxes, with his five millions, less than 150 years before. The Greek army was scarcely more inferior to the Persian in number than superior in efficiency. It was composed of veteran troops in the highest possible state of equipment and discipline, and every man was filled with enthusiastic devotion to his leader and confidence of success.

“A manual of ancient history” By M. E. Thalheimer, 1872, page 99

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With fresh reinforcements from Greece, he [Alexander] commenced his second campaign, in the spring of 333, by marching through Cappadocia and Cilicia to the gates of Syria.

“A manual of ancient history” By M. E. Thalheimer, page 100

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Alexander was compelled to turn back. His fleet was now ready, and he descended the Hydaspes to the Indus, in the autumn and winter of 327 B. C. His army marched in two columns along the banks, the entire valley submitting with little resistance. Two more cities were founded, and left with Greek garrisons and governors.

“A manual of ancient history” By M. E. Thalheimer, page 205

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The Greek language and literature were planted every-where: every new exploration added to the treasures of science and the enlightenment of the human race.

“A manual of ancient history” By M. E. Thalheimer, page 206


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